25.08.2019
 Philosophy of Science: The latest Developments and Implications pertaining to Developing an Egyptian Advertising Essay

VIEWPOINT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND SIGNIFICANCE FOR EXPANDING AN EGYPTIAN MARKETING RESEARCH AHMED I. GHONEIM Cairo University

SUMMARY

The main subject of the paper is that non-Egyptian marketing science is definitely not entirely valid for people in Egypt. Accepting a hypothesis created from a non-Egyptian theory does not always mean the theory is " true" because, towards the contrary in the old idea of scientific research, no limited number of scientific tests can ever set up the truth of any theory. Similarly, rejecting a speculation derived from a non-Egyptian theory does not add much as far as we known since we realize in advance that marketing theories are contextually bounded in line with the new beliefs of scientific research. Also on what basis would all of us reject that hypothesis? could it be the hypothesis itself that is wrong or maybe the process of testing a non-Egyptian hypothesis against Egyptian data that is rationally wrong?

The problems highlighted from this paper will be exceedingly questionable. The author hopes for, and certainly welcomes educational criticism for much more refinement of that extremely important topic.

INTRODUCTION

This kind of paper depends on outlining and briefly considering the " old” philosophical schools of science. Attention turns following to featuring the " new" philosophical approaches; the R/C point of view. From this follows an evaluation of the R/C approach. The topic then takes up the impact in the new procedure on the advancement marketing theory and analysis. Finally, suggestions for doing promoting science in Egypt are briefly offered.

THE OLD PHILOSOPHICAL SCHOOLS OF SCIENCE

(1)

POSITIVISM

Positivism emerged during the 192O's by an informal band of scientists and philosophers of science named " Vienna Circle". Positivism is centered on a major rule called confirmation theory of meaning. This theory means that scientific offrande are only significant if they can be empirically confirmed (Anderson 1983). The goal of science in the Positivistic view is always to establish " Truth"; the absolute truth by simply testing theories against actuality through scientific tests. Consequently, Positivism leaped into the problem of induction. That is, positivism assumes that propositions are merely true if, and only if, they have been confirmed by empirical tests, yet no limited number of testing can ever guarantee the real truth of scientific propositions. Because of this absolute real truth can never become established. Just for this difficulty, a fresh moderate variation of Positivism was developed and became known as logical Empiricism.

(2)

EMPIRICISM

Carnap admitted that " finish and certain establishment of truth" is hard to get and replaced it with the idea of " little by little increasing

confirmation", through the deposition of the powerful empirical assessments. Empiricism can be characterized by the Inductive-Statistical (I-S) law However , the use of the probabilistic linkage between explanans and explanandum does not resolve the condition of debut ? initiation ? inauguration ? introduction and it remains a circular one. Another issue with the Empiricism is that observations are usually subject to dimension errors specially in social sciences. The third problem is that findings are theory laden; that may be, data are always interpreted inside the light of your prior theories. The history of science implies that, as Kuhn puts it, exactly what a university man recognizes depends on what he looks at and what he is educated to see. To overcome a few of these problems, Popper has offered Falsificationism alternatively.

(3)

FALSIFICATIONISM

Popper allows the notion of data is theory laden. Falsificationism holds that science progresses by a means of " hypothese and refutation". In this view the objective of empirical testing is the refutation of the analyzed hypotheses. Each time a single speculation is refuted, it is the theory itself that that speculation is derived that is certainly falsified. Any kind of hypothesis may be refuted by simply any one negative instance. This is created by what Popper called " Crucial experiment". Lakatos...

Recommendations:  Anderson, Paul Farrenheit. (1983), " Marketing Technological Progress, and Scientific Method”, Journal of Marketing, 47 (Fall), 18-31.  Arndt, Johan (1983), " The Personal Economy Paradigm: Foundation to get Theory Building in Marketing" Journal of promoting, 4 several (Fall), 44-54.  Bennett, Peter G. (1988), Marketing, New York: McGraw-Hill.  Dubin, Robert. (1978), Theory Building, New York, the Free Press.  Hass, Robert W. (1986), Industrial Marketing Supervision, Boston, Kent.  Hunt, Shelby Deb. (1983), " General Theories and the Important Explananda of Marketing", Journal of Marketing, 47 (Fall), 9-17.  Locke, John (1981), " Around the Use and Misuse of Hypotheses, " in In Scientific Considering, R. Deb. Tweeny, M. E. Doherty, and C. R. Mynatt, eds., New York: Columbia School Press, 70-71.  Philip, Paul L. and Jerry C. Olson (1983), " Is research Marketing?, " Journal of promoting, 47 (Fall), 111-125.  Olson, Jerry C. (1982), " Presidential Address-1981; Toward a Science of Buyer Behavior, " in Advances in Client Research, 9, A. Mitchell, ed., Chicago: Association intended for Consumer Research, V-X.  Olson, Jerry C. and Paul L. Peter (1984), " External Validity, " Unpublished Study paper, Penn State University.  Weick, Karl At the. (1989), " Theory Construction as Disciplined Imagination, " in the School of Supervision Review. Deb, A. Whetten, ed., School of Administration, 516-531.