27.08.2019
 end of history Research Daily news

The End of History? – A Reconstruction of Fukuyama's Thesis.

In the shutting stages from the Cold War in 1989, Francis Fukuyama declared that people were witnessing the end of history. This did not mean the finish of situations; rather the finish of mankind's ideological progression. In other words, the search for the optimal political and economic system. Fukuyama draws typically on G. W. N. Hegel, since interpreted by Alexandre Kojève. For Hegel, ‘history' ended in an " absolute moment” in which a final, rational form of society became victorious. To get Fukuyama, this final type of society can be Western open-handed democracy. Generous democracy illustrates the end of history because there are no longer any critical contradictions that cannot be solved within the context of liberalism, nor are there any substantive ideological challenges to liberal democracy.

Fukuyama highlights two major issues to liberalism which have took place in the past century; communism and fascism. Fascism was no much longer a challenge to liberalism as it had been conquered, not only on the material level through WWII but as well, and more importantly, it had been defeated as an idea. The natural and inescapable total inability now linked to fascism ruined its appeal. The challenge by communism was far greater. Their criticism of capital and labour plus the inequalities connected with liberalism/capitalism garnered substantial support and continue to be the chief accusation against the ideology. Fukuyama draws on empiricism to substantiate his argument from the end of the communist threat. The egalitarian society of modern America is said to represent " the achievements of the classless society”, leading to redundancy from the Marxist obstacle. Furthermore, the liberalisation of the China pertaining to its overall economy means that no longer acts as an example of an alternative to liberalism. Financial trends and developments in the Soviet Union in 1989 are the central empirical example of the outdating of the...

Bibliography: Fukuyama, Francis., The End of the past and The Previous Man, 2006, Free Press: Simon & Schuster, Inc., pp. 341-345

Fukuyama, Francis., The End of the past?, The National Interest, Summer time 1989. Utilized on sixteenth February 2014. Available at: http://ps321.community.uaf.edu/files/2012/10/Fukuyama-End-of-history-article.pdf, pp. 1-25

Furedi, Outspoken., Mythical Past, Elusive Foreseeable future: History and World in an Stressed Age, 1992, London: Pluto Press, pp. 218-224

Organised, David., Assessment: Liberalism, Marxism and Democracy, Theory and Society, 1993, Vol. twenty two No . 2 . Accessed about 18th Feb 2014. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/657772, pp. 249-281

Huntington, Samuel G., The Collide of Civilisations?, Foreign Affairs, 1993. Accessed: 21st Feb 2014. Available at: http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/pnorris/Acrobat/Huntington_Clash.pdf, pp. 22-49

Kimball, Roger., Francis Fukuyama plus the End of History, The New Requirements, 1992. Reached on seventeenth February 2014. Available at: http://www.newcriterion.com/articles.cfm/Francis-Fukuyama-and-the-end-of-History-4501